Isoflurane (Isothesia )
$170.00 – $1,200.00
Isoflurane (Isothesia), sold under the trade name Forane among others, is a general anesthetic.It can be used to start or maintain anesthesia.Often another medication, however, is used to start anesthesia due to airway irritation with isoflurane. It is used by inhalation.
Side effects include a decreased effort to breathe (respiratory depression), low blood pressure, and irregular heartbeat.Serious side effects may include malignant hyperthermia and high blood potassium. It should not be used in people with a history of malignant hyperthermia either in themselves or their family members.It is unknown if use during pregnancy is safe for the baby; however, use during a cesarean section appears to be okay.Isoflurane is in the halogenated ether family of medication.
Isoflurane was approved for medical use in the United States in 1979.It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 17.24 to 170.40 USD per 250 ml bottle.
Isoflurane is always administered in conjunction with air and/or pure oxygen. Often nitrous oxide is also used. Although its physical properties imply that anaesthesia can be induced more rapidly than with halothane,its pungency can irritate the respiratory system, negating this theoretical advantage conferred by its physical properties. It is usually used to maintain a state of general anesthesia that has been induced with another drug, such as thiopentone or propofol.
Similar to many general anesthetics, the exact mechanism of the action has not been clearly delineated. Isoflurane reduces pain sensitivity (analgesia) and relaxes muscles. Isoflurane likely binds to GABA, glutamate and glycine receptors, but has different effects on each receptor. It potentiates glycine receptor activity, which decreases motor function. It inhibits receptor activity in the NMDA glutamate receptor subtypes. Isoflurane inhibits conduction in activated potassium channels. Isoflurane also affects intracellular molecules. It activates calcium ATPase by increasing membrane fluidity . It binds to the D subunit of ATP synthase and NADH dehydrogenase.
General anaesthesia with isoflurane reduces plasma endocannabinoid AEA concentrations, and this could be a consequence of stress reduction after loss of consciousness.
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