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Lidocaine Powder, also known as xylocaine and lignocaine, is a medication used to numb tissue in a specific area.It is also used to treat ventricular tachycardia and to perform nerve blocks.Lidocaine mixed with a small amount of adrenaline (epinephrine) is available to allow larger doses for numbing, to decrease bleeding, and to make the numbing effect last longer.When used as an injectable, it typically begins working within four minutes and lasts for half an hour to three hours.Lidocaine mixtures may also be applied directly to the skin or mucous membranes to numb the area.
Common side effects with intravenous use include sleepiness, muscle twitching, confusion, changes in vision, numbness, tingling, and vomiting.It can cause low blood pressure and an irregular heart rate.There are concerns that injecting it into a joint can cause problems with the cartilage.It appears to be generally safe for use in pregnancy.A lower dose may be required in those with liver problems.It is generally safe to use in those allergic to tetracaine or benzocaine.Lidocaine is an antiarrhythmic medication of the class Ib type.Lidocaine works by blocking sodium channels and thus decreasing the rate of contractions of the heart.When used locally as a numbing agent, local neurons cannot signal the brain.
Lidocaine was discovered in 1946 and went on sale in 1948.It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.It is available as a generic medication and is not very expensive.he wholesale cost in the developing world in 2014 was US$0.45 to $1.05 wholesale per 20ml vial of medication.
The efficacy profile of lidocaine as a local anaesthetic is characterized by a rapid onset of action and intermediate duration of efficacy. Therefore, lidocaine is suitable for infiltration, block, and surface anaesthesia. Longer-acting substances such as bupivacaine are sometimes given preference for spinal and epidural anaesthesias; lidocaine, though, has the advantage of a rapid onset of action. Adrenaline vasoconstricts arteries, reducing bleeding and also delays the resorption of lidocaine, almost doubling the duration of anaesthesia. For surface anaesthesia, several formulations can be used for endoscopies, before intubations, etc. Buffering the pH of lidocaine makes local numbing less painful.Lidocaine drops can be used on the eyes for short ophthalmic procedures.
There is tentative evidence for topical lidocaine for neuropathic pain and skin graft donor site pain.
As a local numbing agent, it is used for the treatment of premature ejaculation.
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